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[共享] 谈播出网络利用串口传输已播出文件

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发表于 2011-6-23 15:41:46 |显示全部楼层
作者:河北省唐山广播电视局 林耐云 李硕
<广告>
    一 开发背景     当前,随着电视播控数字化和网络化的发展,多家电视台的电视播控系统采用了网络化的播出结构,但是当该系统需要与外界计算机交换数据时又存在着播出网络中的计算机如何预防病毒的问题,如何实现电视播控中心的播出网络与外界进行安全的数据交换是一个重要的问题。

    唐山电视台采用的是如图1所示结构的网络化自动播出系统,它由主备数据服务器、准备站、主备播出站及网络交换机组成,每一部分各自完成独立的任务,在此不在赘述。
图1 唐山电视台网络化自动播出系统结构图
    在唐山电视台电视播控中心,每天每套的节目播出结束后,当天所有的已播出素材分别在相应的播出站的本地硬盘保存成PARADOX数据表,为使广告管理部门能够对各个频道当天的所有播出广告节目进行内容和时间的统计,需要将各个频道已播出的PARADOX数据表传输给广告管理部门,但是这些已播数据表如何从播出网络传输给广告管理部门的计算机呢?通过软盘等移动存储设备或通过网络传输是我们首先想到的办法,但考虑到网络化自动播出系统要求较高的安全性,同时各种安全隐患中计算机病毒的危害表现最为严重,因为播出网络一旦感染计算机病毒,它将导致整个播出系统无【请不要乱说话,词语被禁止】常工作、播出数据遭到破坏、网络阻塞等,这对电视台的安全播出来说将是致命的。对网络化播出系统而言,计算机病毒感染的途径主要有两种,一种是通过受感染的软盘或其他存储介质读写感染,这是最古老也是最有效的攻击手段,通过受感染的软盘启动系统引导病毒进入系统引导区或系统分区表,对于存储介质的长期使用不可避免地会带来计算机病毒的感染。另一种的病毒感染途径就是通过网络共享感染,如果靠网络实现资源共享,而受病毒感染的文件共享所造成的恶果是传统的病毒力所不及的,所以我们否决了采用软盘或其他移动存储设备拷贝已播播出表和将广告管理部门的计算机与网络化播出系统联网的方法。

    基于对现有的运行状况的分析,考虑到系统运行的要求,我们提出了基于串口通信传输数据的方案,设计独立的数据传输协议,开发独立的串口数据传输系统,将网络化播出系统的播后信息经过串口线传送到广告管理部门的计算机。由于串口通信传输数据的协议都是特定的,自己根据系统特点设计,不是标准协议,并且串口通讯采用单向传输方式,只能从播出网络向网外传输数据,而网外数据不能向播出网络内部传输数据,而且目前也没有发现基于串口传输的计算机病毒的出现,因此可以很好的保证网络化播出系统的安全。
    二 实现串口传输文件的基本原理
    串行端口的本质功能是作为CPU和串行设备间的编码转换器。当数据从 CPU经过串行端口发送出去时,字节数据转换为串行的位;在接收数据时,串行的位被转换为字节数据。Delphi语言是新一代可视化开发工具,它具有功能强大、简便易用和代码执行速度快等特点,用Delphi开发串口通信软件一般有两种方法:一是利用Windows的通信API函数,另一种是采用Microsoft的SPCCOM控件。这里我们采用了通过控件SPCCOM开发了串口传输已播数据表的应用程序。
    * 进行程序设计时首先要设置好控件SPCCOM的各种属性,SPCCOM包括以下属性:CommName是用来填写COM1、COM2…等串口的名字,在打开串口前,必须填写好此值。设定BaudRate波特率9600,4800等,根据实际需要来定,在串口打开后也可更改波特率,实际波特率随之更改。字节长度ByteSize可根据实际情况设定5/6/7/8等、Parity为奇偶校验位、PBits为停止位、SendDataEmpty是一个布尔属性,为true时表示发送缓存为空,或者发送队列里没有信息,为False时表示表示发送缓存不为空,或者发送队列里有信息。
    * 开发串口传输应用程序时,应用程序若要使用串口进行通信,必须在使用之前向操作系统提出资源申请要求(打开串口),通信完成后必须释放资源(关闭串口)。使用Startcomm过程用于打开串口,当打开失败时通常会报错,错误主要有如下7种:第一,串口已经打开;第二,打开串口错误;第三,文件句柄不是通讯句;第四,不能够安装通讯缓存;第五,不能产生事件;第六,不能产生读进程;第七,不能产生写进程。StopComm过程用于关闭串口,没有返回值。函数WriteCommData(pDataToWrite: PChar;dwSizeofDataToWrite:Word ): boolean 用于发送一个字符串到写线程,发送成功返回true,发送失败返回false, 执行此函数将立即得到返回值,发送操作随后执行。函数有两个参数,其中 pDatatowrite是要发送的字符串,dwSizeofDatatoWrite 是发送的长度。还有OnReceiveData,当输入缓存有数据时将触发该事件,在这里可以对从串口收到的数据进行处理。Buffer中是收到的数据,bufferlength是收到的数据长度。OnReceiveError 是当接受数据时出现错误将触发该事件。
    根据系统的特点,我们设计了应用层的通讯协议,接收数据的一般处理方法,最基本的思路就是通过协议进行分析,所以协议的制定是至关重要的:
    首先要确定指令的起始点,从大量的数据流中将指令分离出来,没有起始标志的话,结果就是一串无效的数据。然后就是指令结束识别点,可以利用指令的长度(如果长度一定或有表示长度的数据)或结束标志来确定,当然还可以利用下一条指令的指令头。头尾都明确之后,还有一种情况就是数据错误是的容错,即发现不符合格式的指令,就将其抛掉或如要求重发。有效数据中如果增加一些冗余校验,传输通讯将会更加可靠。保证每条数据能够准确的识别与传输。
    数据字段包括:类型|播出时间|标识|标题|节目长度|状态|实播时间等,按照上述的数据格式封装,进行数据的传输。系统包括了两个部分,一个是发送端,另一个是接收端,安装时发送端装在源计算机上,接收端安装在目的计算机。其中发送端运行于播出网络中的一台准备站上,主要包括两个主要模块:其一是数据库操作模块。该模块通过播出系统局域网实现对播后数据信息的识别并取出并打包封装;其二是发送模块。将打包封装的数据发送到发送数据缓冲区,发送数据,包括起始位 、数据位 、校验位 、停止位。接收端运行于播出网络外的任一台电脑上,主要实现接收串口缓冲区数据,并根据数据封装协议,拆分数据包,将数据存储在指定类型的数据字段之中,以便广告管理部门人员使用。
    三 实际应用
    目前较为常用的RS232串口有9针串口和25针串口,数据传输速率最大可到20Kbps,通信距离较近小于15m时,可以用电缆线直接连接标准RS232串口,若距离较远,需附加调制解调器。RS232串口最为简单且常用的是三线制接法,即地、接收数据和发送数据三脚相连,同一个串口的接收脚和发送脚直接用线相连,对9针串口和25针串口,均是2与3直接相连,当源计算机端和目标计算机端用RS232串口线连接好后,再分别在播出网络的一台准备站即源计算机端安装软件的发送端,在播出网络外的任意一台计算机上安装软件的接收端,通过点击发送端软件和接收端软件的设置键可以对计算机的串口号进行选择,并且对已播PARADOX数据文件表的存储路径进行相应的设置,如图2所示,然后就可以传输播出站上的播后数据表文件了。在使用该应用软件传输播后数据表时应同时打开接收端和发送端软件,发送端位于播出网络系统中,安装发送端软件的计算机可通过映射网络驱动器的方式连接到各个播出站的存放播后PARADOX数据表的驱动器。在发送端选择要传输的播后数据表文件,并且接收到发送端给接收端的接收请求信号后,就可进行已播播出表文件的传输了,图3显示的是已播数据表文件的传输过程。这样就实现了播后数据表的安全传输,充分保障了网络化播出系统的安全。
    总之,基于串口传输已播数据表文件使得唐山电视台在播出网络安全和已播数据共享之间得到了很好得结合,应用一年多来取得了良好的效果,该种文件传输形式也将应用到涉及计算机安全的其他方面。

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发表于 2011-6-23 17:01:15 |显示全部楼层
单位有内部局域网和外部互联网(实际上也是局域网),外网每天定时产生以日期为后缀名的文件,如:*.01,*.02,*.03.....*.30,*.31样式的文件。将两网用串口连起来,主要为了实现:一是隔绝两网,串口只传输规定的文件;二是将外网每天产生的文件,定时传输过来。
  在网上查了些资料,有很多提到在vb6用MSCOMM.OCX控件可以实现,那么在VB.NET怎么实现?
  谢谢高手指点一下
.net 2.0提供了SerialPort实现串口通讯简单多了,打开要传输的文件,按字节发送,接收端收到后组合即可.
使用老方法如:pcanywhere软件、controlid软件都可以实现,串口使用直连虚拟调制解调器驱动,即可。
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发表于 2011-11-29 17:46:36 |显示全部楼层
又看了一次
已有 1 人评分威望 收起 理由
tingmei200 + 1 赞一个!www.tingmeisushenneiyi.com

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发表于 2011-12-25 15:07:21 |显示全部楼层

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这篇帖子构思新颖,题材独具匠心,段落清晰,情节诡异,跌宕起伏,主线分明,引人入胜,平淡中显示出不凡的文学功底,可谓是字字珠玑,句句经典,是我辈应当学习之典范。
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发表于 2011-12-28 13:31:11 |显示全部楼层
知道了 不错~~~
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发表于 2012-4-28 11:11:43 |显示全部楼层
谢谢你哦,你是最棒的
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发表于 2012-5-19 13:41:41 |显示全部楼层
我也想了解了解!!!先顶一个












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发表于 2012-7-2 18:45:42 |显示全部楼层
希望大家发表自己的看法!我先赞成一下
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发表于 2012-12-18 08:10:29 |显示全部楼层
谢谢了。。。 我很赞成,继续努力吧
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发表于 2013-2-3 04:22:21 |显示全部楼层
不错~~~~~~
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发表于 2013-4-26 02:47:37 |显示全部楼层
LZ辛苦了,支持一下!
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发表于 2013-7-26 22:56:38 |显示全部楼层
米水比例要恰当。蒸之前,先把米在冷水里浸泡1个小时,让米粒充分吸水,这样可以缩短加热时间,减少营养损失。若蒸白米饭,米和水的比例是1﹕1.2~1.4,一般水高出米2~4厘米比较合适。加水太多,米饭过于烂软,没有口感,水太少的话,蒸出的米饭会太硬,还有可能夹生。如果是大米里面加紫米、高粱或者小米等粗粮,则要适当多加水,因为粗粮很“吃水”。

  淋些油,加2毫升醋。在盖上锅盖之前,加入半汤勺植物油,可使做熟的米饭油润透亮,颗粒分明。自来水中的氯气对米中的B族维生素有破坏作用,因此在蒸饭前滴入2毫升米醋,能保护维生素,同时还可让蒸出的米饭松软清香,并减慢米饭在炎热季节变馊的速度。此外,醋有延缓碳水化合物吸收的效果,可以避免血糖过快上升。用柠檬汁或柑橘汁代替醋也能达到上述效果,并且能消除米饭中不新鲜的气息。

  电饭煲档位要选好。现在很多品牌的电饭煲,仅蒸饭功能就有多个档位,让很多人无所适从。一般来说,不同档位煮出的米饭有所差别,“米饭”一档煮出来的米饭口感软硬度适中;“快煮”也是软硬适中,但速度上可以节省近一半的时间,非常适合上班族;“偏软”煮出的米饭口感含水量比较多但不会黏牙,适合家里有老年人的使用;“偏硬”档煮的米饭颗粒饱满,适合年轻人吃。

  蒸好后再焖5分钟。一般情况下,当电饭煲“跳闸”就说明米饭已经熟了,但如果这时候打开盖子盛饭,会发现表层的米饭很稀,而锅底则紧紧粘着一层锅巴。这层锅巴不仅无法盛出来,也很难清洗。正确的做法是,当加热开关跳至保温开关之后,不要马上拔插头,让它处于保温状态5分钟,拔完插头后让米饭继续焖5分钟,这样蒸的米饭吃起来口感更好,而且还不容易粘锅。
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发表于 2013-8-29 10:26:28 |显示全部楼层
吼吼。。顶啊
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发表于 2014-7-1 21:17:05 |显示全部楼层
就是喜欢你的帖子 没办法












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发表于 2014-9-24 15:39:51 |显示全部楼层
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发表于 2015-11-1 18:53:28 |显示全部楼层
好看的妞 WwW点DAPIAN007点pw天天X片更新
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发表于 2015-12-4 08:56:22 |显示全部楼层
CONTENTS
List of Maps xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Time Line xix
I Early Greece and the Bronze Age 1
The Land of Greece 1
Sources for Early Greek History 4
Greece in the Stone Ages 5
The Ancient Civilizations of the Near East 6
Greece in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3000‐2100 BC) 8
Greece in the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2100‐1600 BC) 9
The Discovery of Aegean Civilization: Troy, Mycenae,
Knossos 11
Minoan Society and Culture (c. 1700‐1500 BC) 12
The Mycenaeans 18
The Early Mycenaeans (c. 1600‐1400 BC) 21
The Later Mycenaeans (c. 1400‐1200 BC) 22
The End of the Mycenaean Civilization 37
II The ?Dark Age? of Greece and the Eighth‐Century
?Renaissance? (c. 1150‐700 BC) 41
Sources for the Dark Age 42
Decline and Recovery (c. 1150‐900 BC) 42
Society in the Early Dark Age 46
‐vii‐
R evival (c. 900‐750 BC) 50
Homer and Oral Poetry 51
Late Dark Age (Homeric) Society 53
Community, Household, and Economy in the Late Dark
Age 66
The End of the Dark Age (c. 750‐700 BC) 71
III Archaic Greece (c. 700‐500 BC) 82
Sources for the Seventh and Sixth Centuries 83
The Formation of the City‐State (Polis) 84
The Ethnos 86
Government in the Early City‐States 87
The Colonizing Movement 90
Economic and Social Divisions in the Early Poleis 95
Hesiod: The View from Below 99
The Hoplite Army 103
The Archaic Age Tyrants 106
Art and Architecture 109
Lyric Poetry 116
Philosophy and Science 121
Relations Between States 124
Panhellenic Institutions 127
IV Sparta 131
Sources for Spartan History and Institutions 131
The Dark Age and the Archaic Period 134
The Spartan System 138
Demography and the Spartan Economy 146
Spartan Government 149
Sparta and Greece 153
Historical Change in Sparta 154
The Spartan Mirage 155
Sources for Early Athens 159
Athens from the Bronze Age to the Early Archaic Age 160
The Reforms of Solon 164
Peisistratus and His Sons 169
The Reforms of Cleisthenes 174
‐viii‐
T he Rise of Persia 178
The Wars Between Greece and Persia 181
VI The Rivalries of the Greek City‐States and the Growth of
Athenian Democracy 201
Sources for the Decades After the Persian Wars 202
The Aftermath of the Persian Wars and the Foundation of
the Delian League 203
The ?First? (Undeclared) Peloponnesian War (460‐445 BC) 212
Pericles and the Growth of Athenian Democracy 215
Literature and Art 219
Oikos and Polis 233
The Greek Economy 240
VII Greece on the Eve of the Peloponnesian War 246
Sources for Greece on the Eve of the War 246
Greece After the Thirty Years? Peace 247
The Breakdown of the Peace 250
Resources for War 254
Intellectual Life in Fifth‐century Greece 255
The Literature of the Fifth Century 260
Currents in Greek Thought and Education 267
The Physical Space of the Polis: Athens on the Eve of War 274
VIII The Peloponnesian War 287
Sources for Greece During the Peloponnesian War 287
The Archidamian War (431‐421 BC) 289
Between Peace and War 303
The Invasion of Sicily (415‐413 BC) 305
The War in the Aegean and the Oligarchic Coup at Athens
(413‐411 BC) 311
Fallout from the Long War 319
The War in Retrospect 326
IX The Crisis of the Polis and the Age of Shifting Hegemonies 330
Sources for Fourth‐century Greece 331
Postwar Greece and the Struggle for Hegemony 332
‐ix‐
L aw and Democracy in Athens 343
The Fourth‐century Polis 349
Philosophy and the Polis 353
X Phillip II and the Rise of Macedon 371
Sources for Macedonian History 371
Early Macedonia 372
Macedonian Society and Kingship 373
The Reign of Philip II 377
Macedonian Domination of Greece 388
XI Alexander the Great 395
Sources for the Reign of Alexander 398
Consolidating Power 399
From Issus to Egypt: Conquest of the Eastern
Mediterranean (332‐331 BC) 408
From Alexandria to Persepolis: The King of Asia (331‐330 410
BC)
The High Road to India: Alexander in Central Asia 414
I ndia and the End of the Dream 419
Return to the West 422
XII Alexander?s Successors and the Cosmopolis 427
A New World 427
Sources for the Hellenistic Period 429
The Struggle for the Succession 431
The Regency of Perdiccas 432
The Primacy of Antigonus the One‐Eyed 436
Birth Pangs of the New Order (301‐276 BC) 441
The Place of the Polis in the Cosmopolis 446
The Macedonian Kingdoms 450
Hellenistic Society 453
Alexandria and Hellenistic Culture 455
Social Relations in the Hellenistic World 463
Epilogue 471
Glossary 476
Art and Illustration Credits 490
Index 494
‐x‐
LIST OF MAPS AND BATTLE PLANS
Greece and the Aegean World xxviii ‐xxix
M ycenaean sites in the thirteenth century BC 26
Greek Colonization: 750‐500 BC 91
The Agora in the Archaic period, c. 500 BC, showing the
e arliest buildings 115
Peloponnesus 135
Attica 177
The Persian Empire in the Reign of Darius 183
The Persian Wars 195
The Athenian Empire 206
Sicily and southern Italy 248
Alliances at the outset of the Peloponnesian War 256 ‐257
T heaters of operation during the Peloponnesian War 290
Diagram of Syracuse and Epipolae 308
Macedonia and its Nei【请不要乱说话,词语被禁止】ors 374
Alexander?s Campaign 396 ‐397
P lan of the Battle of Issus 406
Plan of the Battle of Gaugamela 413
The Greek view of the inhabited world 419
The Hellenistic World 444 ‐445
‐xi‐
PREFACE
This book is designed to share with readers a rich and complex vision of ancient
Greece that has been forged by the collaboration of four scholars with different
backgrounds and varying interests. We undertook it because of our frustration in the
search for a single volume that provided readers with a comprehensive history of
Greek civilization from its first beginnings in the second millennium BC through the
Hellenistic era. It has been more than a quarter of a century since the last attempt to
tell this story in depth; all recent textbooks have either focused on political and
military developments or omitted the Hellenistic era. We hope that what we have
written will be useful and will give pleasure both to the general reader and to the
student who is asked to read it in college. We have strived for a pace and a length
that are suitable for a course lasting for a semester or a quarter devoted to the history
and civilization of Greece‐‐long enough to provide depth and detail, and short
enough to enable the instructor to assign primary sources that will expand the
student?s understanding of a world that is both familiar and alien. Incorporating the
fruits of the most recent scholarship, we have aimed for a balance between political,
military, social, cultural, and economic history. The Athenian lawgiver Solon, who
sought to reconcile the feuding political parties of his day, lamented that in trying to
please everybody he seemed to have pleased nobody. We are optimistic that we will
not be driven to such lamentations by the challenges we faced in our quest to
integrate the various aspects of Greek civilization.
Greek culture was forged in the crucible of the Bronze Age civilizations that cropped
up in worlds as diverse as unified Egypt and fragmented Mesopotamia. Absorbing
key skills from these highly developed nei【请不要乱说话,词语被禁止】ors‐‐metallurgy, for example, and
writing‐‐the Greeks built a distinctive culture marked by astonishing creativity,
versatility, and resilience. In the end this world dissolved as Greek civilization,
having reached from France and Italy in the west to Pakistan in the east, merged with
a variety of other cultures‐‐Macedonian, for example, Syrian, Iran‐
‐xiiiian,
Egyptian, Roman, and finally Byzantine. Greek became the common language
throughout the Near East and was the language in which the texts collected in what
we call the New Testament were written. Through its incorporation into the Roman
empire and the fusion of Greek and Italian elements in mythology and architecture, a
hybrid culture known as ?Classical? came to hold an important place in the traditions
of Europe and the Americas.
Between the decline of the Bronze Age and the diffusion of Greek culture throughout
the Mediterranean world, Greek civilization attained an extraordinary richness
marked by diversity within unity. The world of the Homeric epics the Iliad and the
Odyssey was radically different from that of the fifth and fourth centuries, yet the
epics remained the texts most commonly taught in schools, and Alexander was
rumored to have carried a copy of Homer?s work as he traveled, and lamented that
he had no great poet to immortalize him as Homer had immortalized Achilles.
Though religion inspired much of architecture, literature, and even athletic
competitions, which were held to honor the gods, Greek government and society
often seemed to function in an entirely secular manner. Marriage, for example, was a
purely secular affair, and divorce was not believed to distress the gods at all. The
gods were nowhere and everywhere. Ideals of equality were preached by men who
usually owned slaves and believed in the inferiority of women. Stolid, warlike Sparta
and cultivated, intellectual Athens considered themselves polar opposites;
Thucydides encapsulated many of the differences seen from the Athenian point of
view in the funeral oration for the war dead he put in the mouth of the Athenian
statesman Pericles. Yet people in both cities lived by agriculture, worshipped Zeus
and the other Olympian gods, subjected women to men, believed firmly in slavery
(provided they were not slaves themselves!), sacrificed animals, considered war a
constant in human life, preached an ethic of equity among male citizens, cherished
athletics and delighted in the Olympics and other competitions, enjoyed praising the
rule of law, considered Greeks superior to non‐Greeks, and accepted as axiomatic the
primacy of the state over the individual.
The history of the ancient Greeks is one of the most improbable success stories in all
of world history. A small people inhabiting a poor country on the periphery of the
civilizations of Egypt and the Near East, the Greeks created one of the world?s most
remarkable cultures. In almost every area of the arts and sciences they made
fundamental contributions, and their legacy is still alive in western and Islamic
civilizations. Throughout the Renaissance and the eighteenth century, Sparta was
cherished as the model of a mixed and therefore stable constitution. In the nineteenth
and twentieth centuries, more attention has focused on Athens, where it is possible to
witness the gradual erosion of privilege based on wealth and lineage and the growth
of democratic machinery‐‐law codes and courts, procedures for selecting officials and
holding them accountable, and public debates and votes on matters of domestic and
foreign policy. Athens and Sparta fought ruinous wars with one another, and the
propensity of the Greek states for fighting one another shaped much of their history.
The devastating Greek world war of 431‐404 known as the Peloponnesian War
(because of Sparta?s
‐xivlocation
on the peninsula of the Peloponnesus) placed a damper on the extraordinary
burst of creativity that had marked the fifth century‐‐the tragedies of Aeschylus,
Sophocles, and Euripides; the comedies of Aristophanes; the building of the
Parthenon at Athens and the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Throughout this painful era
and the decades that followed, thinkers continued to explore the questions that had
intrigued Greek intellectuals at least as far back as the sixth century‐‐the origins of
the universe and the mechanisms by which it functioned; the relation between
physis, ?nature,? and nomos, ?custom? or ?law?; how and what mortals can know
about the gods; what these gods might want from people; whether indeed true
knowledge was possible for humans; what the best rules might be by which people
could live together in society; what the best form of education was‐‐who was most
qualified to direct it, and how many could profit from it; under what circumstances
the rule of a single wise man might after all be best. New questions were also posed‐‐
whether involvement in politics ought really to be the focus of a man?s life; whether
the individual might find identity separate from the state; whether war was worth
the sacrifices it entailed; and even whether slavery and the disfranchisement of
women were necessary (though those radical speculations did not result in social
change). Inevitably, the conquests of Alexander, the ?mass marriages he celebrated
between Macedonian soldiers and women from Persia and Media in 324 BC, and the
hybrid culture that was forged throughout western Asia and Europe challenged
conventional Greek assumptions about the clear line that divided Greeks from the
non‐Greek peoples they called ?barbarians?‐‐people whose language sounded like
?bar, bar, bar.? In some of the lands incorporated into the new Macedonian empires,
women enjoyed higher status than in most of the Greek world, and this sometimes
rubbed off on the colonial Macedonian aristocracy, changing long‐entrenched mores.
The country that the poet Byron labeled the ?land of lost gods? continues to live on in
the modern imagination. It is our hope that this book will flesh out these romantic
images with historical realities. During the past decades our understanding of
ancient Greece has vastly expanded. Thanks to the work of a generation of talented
scholars, our knowledge of numerous aspects of Greek history and life has been
transformed and is still being transformed today. Archaeology has

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